Van Mantgem, P. J. et al. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323, 521–524 (2009).
Peng, S. et al. A drought-induced pervasive increase in tree mortality across Canada’s boreal forest. Nature Clim. Change 1, 467–471 (2011).
Settele, J. et al. in Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (eds Field, C. et al.) Ch. 4 (IPCC, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2014)
Hicke, J. A. et al. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon cycling in the United States and Canada. Glob. Change Biol. 18, 7–34 (2012).
Phillips, O. L. et al. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323, 1344–1347 (2009).
Williams, A. P. et al. Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest drought stress and tree mortality. Nature Clim. Change 3, 292–297 (2013).
Carnicer, J. et al. Widespread crown condition decline, food web disruption, and amplified tree mortality with increased climate change-type drought. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 1474–1478 (2011).
Matusick, G. et al. Sudden forest canopy collapse corresponding with extreme drought and heat in a mediterranean-type eucalypt forest in southwestern Australia. Eur. J. Forest Res. 132, 497–510 (2013).
Allen, C. D. et al. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 259, 660–684 (2010).
Jiang, X. et al. 2013. Projected future changes in vegetation in western North America in the 21st century. J. Clim. 26, 3671–3687 (2013).
Reichstein, M. et al. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Nature 500, 287–295 (2013).
IPCC Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (eds Stocker, T. F. et al.) (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2013).
Whitehead, D. & Jarvis, P. G. in Water Deficits and Plant Growth Vol. 6 (ed Kozlowski, T. T.) 49–152 (Academic Press, 1981).
Mencuccini, M. The ecological significance of long-distance water transport: Short-term regulation, long-term acclimation and the hydraulic costs of stature across plant life forms. Plant Cell Environ. 26, 163–182 (2003).
Choat, B. et al. Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491, 752–755 (2012).
Lefsky, M. A. A global forest canopy height map from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L15401 (2010).
Suarez, M. L. & Kitzberger, T. K. Recruitment patterns following a severe drought: Long-term compositional shifts in Patagonian forests. Can. J. Forest Res. 38, 3002–3010 (2008).
Agee, J. K. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests (Island Press, 1996).
Westerling, A. L., Turner, M. G., Smithwick, E. A. H., Romme, W. H. & Ryan, M. G. Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st Century. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 32, 13165–13170 (2011).
Cullingham, C. I. et al. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest. Mol. Ecol. 20, 2157–2171 (2011).
Williams, A. P., Xu, C. & McDowell, N. G. Who’s the new sheriff in town regulating boreal forest growth? Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 041004 (2011).
McDowell, N. G., Adams, H. D., Bailey, J. D., Hess, M. & Kolb, T. E. Homeostatic maintenance of ponderosa pine gas exchange in response to stand density changes. Ecol. Appl. 16, 1164–1182 (2007).
McDowell, N. G. et al. Interdependence of mechanisms underlying climate-driven vegetation mortality. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26, 523–532 (2011).
McDowell, N. G., Adams, H. D., Bailey, J. D. & Kolb, T. E. The response of ponderosa pine growth efficiency and leaf area index to a forty-year stand density experiment. Can. J. Forest Res. 37, 343–355 (2007).
Stephens, S. L. et al. Managing forests and fire in changing climates. Science 342, 41–42 (2014).
Swetnam, T. W., Allen, C. D. & Betancourt, J. L. Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage for the future. Ecol. Appl. 9, 1189–1206 (1999).
Brando, P. M. et al. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought–fire interactions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 6347–6352 (2014).
Grady, K. C. et al. Genetic variation in productivity of foundation riparian species at the edge of their distribution: Implications for restoration and assisted migration in a warming climate. Glob. Change Biol. 17, 3724–3735 (2011).
Lloret, F. et al. Extreme climatic events and vegetation: The role of stabilizing processes. Glob. Change Biol. 18, 797–805 (2012).